Long green onion (negi) contains a lot of vitamin B and is good for recovery from fatigue or cold. It is used in udon, soba and miso soup as a spice. It is also used in sukiyaki and all-in-one pot dishes.
Garlic chives (nira) are soft and smell unique. Their shape is long, thin and flat and their color is green. Garlic chives are often used in Chinese and Korean cooking, and in other SE Asian countries. They were introduced from China into Japan around the 9th century. Their usage is widespread in Japan.
Japanese shallot (rakkyou) has a pungent taste and a unique smell. It is eaten mainly as a pickle with curry and rice. It is produced in Tottori and Fukui Prefectures and in Okinawa, where it is called shima-rakkyou (island shallot). Unlike the Japanese shallot, this type contains a lot of vitamin C and calcium and is good for your health. There are several ways Island shallot can be served. One way is to rub them with salt and then set them aside for 10 minutes, after which they are washed and eaten raw. They can also be fried as tempura.
Green perilla leaves (called ao-jiso for green leaves; or ooba for big leaves) have a good flavor and are often used as a spice in dipping sauce for thick white noodles (udon) and thin white noodles (sōmen). They are also used in tempura. The Japanese word for perilla is shiso.
Bamboo shoot (takenoko) is harvested in spring and is used in Japanese and Chinese cooking. The raw bamboo shoot cannot be eaten and has egumi (bitter taste). For removing egumi, boil raw bamboo shoot with a mixture of water and rice bran. Boiled bamboo shoot can be simmered in soy sauce, cooked in seasoned rice, or prepared as tempura, etc.